14 Nov Loot trading is fine It's funny, I've heard that loot trading is bad because it encourages ninja looting, and also that it's bad because it reduces the chances of ninja looting. If you get 3 of your friends to roll on an item, specifically so you can get it, congratulations, you have reached the pinnacle of what an MMO stands for and certainly deserve the item much more than the other person. This can also be done without loot trading, by everyone rolling, and then making a ticket to transfer it over to your friend that really needed it. Takes a lot longer, and Blizzard has to divert time and resources into it. Why wouldn't they crowdsource a personal problem? If someone rolls on an item that they don't need, wins it and decides to try and sell you the item? Now is the time to tell all your friends to avoid that person. Oh you don't have any friends? I guess you have to make some then? This is what an MMO is all about. Since everyone is on the same realm in Classic, your reputation matters. Sure, you can fool people by just leveling another character, but that takes a long time in Classic. Most people decide it's not worth it to be a dick.Monkehh48 14 Nov
Brewmaster: Hot Trub - Purifying Brew deals 30% of your purified staggered damage to all enemies within 10 yards. Mistweaver: Way of the Crane - Increases your Physical damage by 25%, you remove and become immune to all snare and root effects and you heal up to 3 nearest allies for 150% of all damage done. Lasts 15 sec. Windwalker: Reverse Harm - Heals a friendly target for 8% of their maximum health, and causes 100% of the amount healed to instantly be dealt to the nearest enemy as Nature damage within 5 yards. Paladin
Nov 15 Classic Box Cost Disappointed in the decision to bundle the subs and (at least for now) not have a separate Classic sub option. That said, can we at least get a separate box cost for access to classic? It would: - help alleviate temporary bloat and subsequent dead realms - servers would be more stable population-wise over time - remove the bulk of the need for sharding - give a solid idea of how many servers will be needed - allow blizzard to set up a separate classic forum for those with a monetary commitment - with a separate forum group, feedback would be limited to those with a vested interest The subs would still be bundled, but there would be a box cost, akin to what one would have to pay for BFA access. A very good to-the-point post from later on in this thread:... Another good post about how the current setup would necessitate sharding:... A decent (albeit short-term) alternative:...Brokenwind314 Nov 15

And for talent builds. I prefer to make my own talent builds. But I've been playing RPGs since the 8bit days so half the fun is building my own characters up. I already made and bookmarked 1 deep fire mage build, 2 elemental mage builds, and 2 deep frost mage builds. And I might remake them tomorrow if I read up on any good talent choices I left out my 1st 5 times lol. And I have multiple builds for the other classes I play too.
Nov 15 My only complain about Classic... ...Horde doesn't have any nice looking races. In my mind each class has best RPG based race for it. So, I like Gnomes because I feel them Mages. Night Elves - Hunters. Humans - Paladins. On Horde side: Undead - ugly. Trolls - ugly. Orcs... uhh fine as Warriors, but I don't play warriors. Tauren - Warriors or Shaman, again don't play those. Blood Elves! Give me Blood Elves!Vlasta36 Nov 15
Brewmaster: Hot Trub - Purifying Brew deals 30% of your purified staggered damage to all enemies within 10 yards. Mistweaver: Way of the Crane - Increases your Physical damage by 25%, you remove and become immune to all snare and root effects and you heal up to 3 nearest allies for 150% of all damage done. Lasts 15 sec. Windwalker: Reverse Harm - Heals a friendly target for 8% of their maximum health, and causes 100% of the amount healed to instantly be dealt to the nearest enemy as Nature damage within 5 yards. Paladin
“By the way, one of these codebases [Vanilla WoW] is extremely buggy, and we had already solved a lot of those [bugs]. But we can’t solve them [this time around] because... ‘reasons’ if we’re thinking about the Classic timeline. And so we really struggled with it for a very long time, and one of the things that we talked about when we were discussing different ways to do it was to do what’s called a ‘fork.’ So we did a fork of our existing modern server stack and then reimplemented the systems that we needed to support Classic WoW. And made sure that the tuning was right and imported the old data, we had the old code and a way to compare. Having the backend tools, and the backend server, and the modern hardware was a requirement to realize this project.” Essentially, what the team did, was teach modern WoW to speak old Classic data.
Nov 15 The most hardcore thing you can do. In vanilla? I have a few things that could be it. Playing on a perma death PvP server and kill kel'thuzad. Without dying even once. Being able to kill a mage/rogue/warlock/pally in all BiS gear Soloing a high end dungeon boss like rivendare or dark master gandling. Leveling to 60 with no gear or weapons or pet of any kind. That is by far the most hardcore, life threatening thing you can do in vanilla wowHavell7 Nov 15
Warrior should be a go-to choice for everyone who wants to get into the end game. Protection Warriors in Classic WoW were considered as one of the best tanks, Fury talent build was a great option for DPS while Arms were dominating PvP environment. However, Warriors’ strength relies on the character’s gear, which means that you might need to put some hours into finding the right items for your class. It is also worth mentioning, that Warrior might be one of the hardest classes to level up in World of Warcraft: Classic but rest assured, if you’ll manage to hit the level cap and find suitable gear, Warrior is one of the strongest classes in the game.
HOWEVER, I did find out that there was an exploit to get around it (one of those rare exploits where you would WANT a bit of lag). Basically if you spammed “X” to sit/stand/sit/stand, then if a mob hit you while you were sitting and right as you were standing up, then it would register as a crit, but on the server side you would be standing, thus allowing the ability to proc.
15 Nov Regeneration on classic demo Hey I haven't seen any discussion about this yet, but wasn't the regeneration on the demo a bit much? From watching streams and videos from different content creators it seem they were regenerating health and mana way faster than I remember and definitely faster compared to vanilla servers. What's your opinions on this, oh wise forum debaters?Eaqe2F22511 15 Nov
My main plan will be to focus on raw gold in the beginning. Then I will spend my gold on leveling tailoring and enchanting so I can shuffle enchanting materials which is likely to be very profitable. I already have some shuffle ideas, and I will look for more. Then I’ll work on obtaining the rare enchanting and tailoring recipes to craft those for gold. 

World of Warcraft Classic has been in closed beta for just under a week. In that time hundreds of players clashed in the Arathi Highlands, the Classic WoW subreddit crested 100,000 subscribers, and the beta has garnered over 150,000 concurrent viewers on Twitch. I've personally invested 20 hours into the beta at this point and am shocked to find myself enjoying parts of the 15-year-old MMO that I remember as mundane. Going in, I knew I'd love the single-shard servers, non-homogeneous classes, lack of flying mounts, and many reasons to interact with other players, but I didn't expect to enjoy the surprising difficulty of simply questing on my own. It's easy to take what I'm playing for granted but the fact of the matter is that WoW Classic wouldn't exist without years of deliberation on the part of a passionate fanbase, followed by years of development on the part of an equally passionate developer.
Recently the new essence received from PvP which gives you access to an extra PvP talent, that also works in PvE situations, has made waves and there are plenty of threads about it on the forums. One in particular got a blue response which clarified just how powerful and how relevant the essence is supposed to be for PvE-focused players. Each spec gets a specific PvP talent added and some of them currently selected on the PTR are a little too powerful and feel mandatory for PvE, such as Moonkin Aura for Boomkins and Leader of the Pack for Feral Druids, but Blizzard clarified it is not their intention to have must-have talents for PvE available through the essence, as its primary goal is to add additional choice for PvP players.
Some even more advanced gold makers might also attempt to monopolize the market. It’s fairly easy if you have quite a bit of gold – just buy out every single item on which you want to have a monopoly on and then reintroduce it to the auction house with your new (and higher) price. However, it’s worth mentioning that monopolization tactic is risky business practice. But where’s high risk – there’s high profit.
Once WoW Classic Launches As Appointed, New WoW Currency Just Like WOW Gold Must Be Provided For Almost Anything Including Exchange WoW Items. Exactly, We MMOAH, A Platform Owning Hundreds Of MMO Game Currency Including The Coming World Of Warcraft Classic Gold Keeping Up To Date And Satisfying-Full Inventory, Have Been Selling Game Currency For Several Years To Worldwide Clients, We'll Provide 100% Secure Online Payment System, Fast Delivery And Cheapest Prices Even 100% Refund With NO.1 Reputation Checked On Trustpilot, Ownedcore And Epicnpc Reviews. Now, We Start To Accept WoW Classic Gold Quick Order, Don't Delay Any Longer, Hope A Joyful Trading.
You can also make good gold for opening lockboxes, park yourself in a public place like Ironforge Commons or Orgrimmar near the Auction House, and let Trade Chat know you’re available.  You can even make gold by offering to stealth in and pick the Shadowforge Lock open in Blackrock Depths!  You’ll need to level up your lockpicking though, so work hard on it like any other profession. Try Redridge, Wetlands, and near the coastal nagas in Ashenvale.

That's not to say that everyone has an unrealistic vision of what vanilla WoW was like. There were already plenty of people on the WoW Classic forums pointing out that perceived bugs are just recreations of the original game. And as noted before, a flaw to one player is a key component of the original positive experience to another. WoW Classic will surely please plenty of purists in spades. But this goes to show that it won't be for everyone who has fond memories of the game circa 2006.


File data: This is often very dense data like 3D models, textures, animations and terrain. Our user interface is built up from XML and Lua files. Many of the art files do not use the same file formats that commercial art tools spit out. Our build pipeline takes these raw art files and translates them into something optimized for our game to read and process.
Escort quests can take awhile to do.  I have thoroughly tested all the escort quests in the game for time/xp.  Most are worth doing, but as long as you are able to actually do them without failing.  Most require you to pay special attention to the escortee as most are fragile and will die easily, so do your best to keep mobs off of the escortee during escort quests.  The longest one in the game is the Tanaris chicken escort.  The chicken escorts are only worth doing if you were able to do all 3 of them, as if you do, you will be able to turn in an additional easy quick XP turn in quest at BB, which makes them worth it.

Nov 13 WoW Classic BlizzCon Demo Pre-Download Hi everyone! We’re incredibly excited for you all to get your hands on the WoW Classic BlizzCon demo next week, and to help make things as smooth as possible, we’re making the client available to download for Virtual Ticket holders starting today. Over the next 24 hours, we’ll be enabling the ability to download the WoW Classic demo through the Battle.net app for players who have purchased the BlizzCon Virtual Ticket, as well as standard BlizzCon ticket holders who have added their Virtual Goodies code to their Battle.net account. If you don’t see the option to install the demo right away, don’t worry – you’ll still have plenty of time to download the client before the demo goes live during BlizzCon next week. We can’t wait for you to get a peek at what we’ve been working on, and hope you enjoy this preview of what’s to come!Ythisens156 Nov 13


Gold in World of Warcraft: Classic can be earned with a bit of luck too. By killing and looting mobs you might find some truly rare items. Some of them might be usable by you but others might not. Don’t just sell that piece of rare equipment to the nearest vendor as it can earn you quite a bit in the auction house. Especially if it’s an item for a level 50+ character.
Where to get materials and reagents you may ask? Buy for cheap off farmers in bulk or track Auction House lots. Get in touch with most big sellers. Communication is important here, send a whisper or write them a letter. It would be good for both of you to establish business relationships. Constant suppliers and buyers is convenient for both parties to save the time and effort.
11 Nov WoW Classic Demo Extended! It’s been awesome seeing all the excitement building around WoW Classic and the play-at-home demo we released as part of the BlizzCon Virtual Ticket. So awesome, in fact, that we’d like to keep the party going for a few more days! We’ve extended the duration of the WoW Classic Demo to last through the weekend, ending at 19:00 CET on Monday, November 12. That should give you plenty of time to track down those remaining Zhevra Hooves, or finish cooking up some Westfall Stew. We hope you’re enjoying the WoW Classic Demo and can’t wait to share the full game with you next summer!Taepsilum16 11 Nov

Nov 15 5 reasons I'm doubtful of WoW Classic I played WoW from patch 1.4 until Sunwell. And I'm not convinced on Classic. 1. I understand nostalgia for the gameplay, and it was a great game, by I don't get why people would want the old graphics when it looked outdated back then. Someone will level a warrior or rogue at snail pace and those 2004 boring graphics will reinforce his perception that the game is bad because it looks bad. 2. The lack of a second talent tree. This was the most demanded feature and I don't see people sticking with the game without it. 3. This has always been in the game, but weekly resets, I never got it, let people able to reset raids. Maybe have a 2 hours cooldown, but if a guild wants to farm a raid every night, or twice on a sunday, or farm the first 3 bosses of MC, let them. Gearing 40-60 people with weekly resets, in this day and age, good luck. 4. Dungeon finder, not sure people will like that, again bad decision. 5. The graphics, no seriously, this is bad on every level of game design, it just make the game look worse, a straight negative with no benefit.Pekuakami24 Nov 15
Nov 15 Why was it "easy" for Nost, but hard for Bliz During Blizzcon we were told how challenging (at least that's how it came off) it was for Blizzard to create a working version of Classic... but Nostalrius, with no ties to Blizzard, was able to make a relatively bug free version of Vanilla? When I say "bug free" I know there was "a lot" of issues, but nothing an entire team at Blizzard couldn't fix. Wouldn't it be less work?Goró64 Nov 15
As of right now, there is no official exact release date, aside from confirmation of summer 2019. It is expected to hit the internet roughly mid-July, or possibly in August. Something as highly anticipated as WoW Classic could launch with weeks of notice and still break records. As of April 21st 2019, World of Warcraft Classic has entered internal employee alpha testing.
Notez que lors de la sortie du jeu, le mardi 27 août 2019, tout le contenu ne sera pas disponible immédiatement. Celui-ci sera déployé en 6 phases. En effet, les développeurs souhaitent attendre et voir comment la communauté s'approprie le jeu. Blizzard partagera le calendrier lorsque que les développeurs auront une idée plus claire de la façon dont les joueurs profitent du contenu. Nous vous proposons un calendrier qui sera mis à jour dès que les informations seront disponibles. 

As I wrote in my preview, World of Warcraft Classic has much more to offer than just nostalgia. The world is filled to the brim with abstruse and challenging elements that coerce you to make and maintain relationships with other players if you want to succeed. As a result, I believe that WoW Classic’s MMO ecosystem offers an experience that can’t be found anywhere else in 2019. And, it would appear I’m not the only one who sees something special in the more-than-decade-old game. Just last week more than 100,000 viewers congregated in the chat of popular streamer “Asmongold” to watch him successfully fell Edwin Van Cleef in the classic Deadmines. A vindicating spectacle that would have been impossible to witness without Blizzard overcoming certain technical hurdles. 

The first—and among the most important—decision we had to make was which version of the game to focus on. As many of you have noted, the classic period was two years long and full of changes. Core features like Battlegrounds were introduced in patches after WoW’s original launch, and class design similarly changed over time. After careful consideration, we decided on Patch 1.12: Drums of War as our foundation, because it represents the most complete version of the classic experience.
For some weird reason Warlock used to be underrepresented in vanilla WoW. However, the least popular doesn’t mean that they were bad. Warlocks had amazing damage and some truly unique utility abilities allowing them to summon players or create Healthstones for the whole group. Similarly to Hunters, Warlocks were amazing for solo players with the ability to summon various demons to help them.
If you’re eager to claim your character name in WoW Classic, take note: we’ll be opening character creation on Tuesday, August 13.** Players with an active subscription or game time on their account will be able to create up to three characters per World of Warcraft account. We’ll have more information on realm names closer to launch, but rest assured—you’ll have plenty of time to figure out your plans for realm domination!
If you’re into MMORPG games, you’ve probably heard that World of Warcraft is preparing to release a classic version of the game this summer. However, not many people have played in the real Classic and current in-game classes might seem completely unrecognizable to some. In the early days of World of Warcraft, the class choice was very important – leveling was super slow, which meant that you could get stuck with your character for months.

15 Nov 7.3.5 client - worst pick to begin with So on your panel you explained why you couldn't use the old Classic Client and told us why u basically needed to recreate the entire game with 7.3.5. This was the worst and main wrong choice to begin with and I guess u guys noticed that but it was to late to go back. Instead of starting the Megaproject to recreate the entire old game you should just have outsourced your servers and build a new, small customer support team to work with the old interface there. By this pretty cheap demo and panel we now see which "insane idea" (quoting you) route you picked. That was a pretty bad pick and beside Sharding,16 debuff slots, new forced animations/sounds into classic graphics toggle, wrong stats, wrong mobaggro range, wrong UI, emptying the world by summoning stones, wrong npc pathing on quests and all the other crap this is by far the worst change to Classic. We take all this "its just a demo" as granted and trust you to fix those things until Release even if time runs low for the enormous amount of fixes needed there till summer 2019. Okay but 7.3.5 brings an endless list with its engine and code which is not comparable. Rogues won't be able to abuse front backstabbing skills, the physics are fundamentall different, there won't be no animation cancels, the movement feels like legion not classic, melees won't have the expanded range they often used to due code bug, Mobs do backpeddale when u "push" them, tldr blablabla. https://www.reddit.com/r/classicwow/comments/9ubyr6/wow_classic_demo_feedback_bugs_and_legion/ In short when people say "this doesn't feel like classic somehow" they're exactly right, because it is not classic. It is 7.3.5 with changed numbers and assets (BTW lots of your "classic graphic option" assets aren't even classic as well). The core of the new game ur building there is fundamentally different and you guys at blizz know exactly that it is, don't misslead anyone by sayin its "authetic" please. Basically it's like putting a Diablo2 character into Diablo3 and say "Here you go, this is Diablo 2". Guess what? No, its not.Uauu42 15 Nov


I think that the token is a nice solution for the problem. Back in the days, blizzard tryed to ban gold sellers, but it was a lost cause. Instead, the token seems to have resolved the problem, letting workers that want to raid with consumables and stuffs to have the golds to do it. Personally, I don't find the gold buying really fair, but I understand that for many people is a necessity and I prefer to leave the economy and the farming spots to the player instead to the gold sellers.
15 Nov (A)Elysium is Recruiting for Classic Greetings friends, I am the Owner of Elysium Gaming an multigaming and MMO organisation. I play WoW since Vanilla Beta and i am thrilled that we are gonna play again my most beloved game ever :) For that reason even though is early, we recruit people to join our ranks and start our journey together. We accept old and new players who want to play again or learn the game from the side of the Alliance. We are not elitists, we have patiance so we can teach and help those who need it and same time to prepare the guild for the end game. We are interested in PvE and PvP but also in every possible in game event. We are open to ideas and sugestions and after all we will deside all together how to run things.Thats the purpose we start now the recruiting,so we can gather as often as possible on our discord and discuss how we want our guild to be. All together we will deside about everything. I am experienced Guild Master and Raid Leader and i am sure i will be able to help so we can create something nice. If you are interested, please add me as friend Ariakan#2206 so we can discuss farther or join our discord channel https://discord.gg/rCy8sSd Thank youAriakán2 15 Nov
Most people who have spent years playing massively multiplayer online games will tell you that there's something special about the first one you played, too—and WoW was the first for many people. You can become so swept up in the uniqueness of your first experience that you overlook many flaws. It's likely many look at WoW Classic with rose-colored glasses, just as many simply forgot which features were added when. And some of today's WoW players may be too young to have even played vanilla WoW as it once was.
You can also make good gold for opening lockboxes, park yourself in a public place like Ironforge Commons or Orgrimmar near the Auction House, and let Trade Chat know you’re available.  You can even make gold by offering to stealth in and pick the Shadowforge Lock open in Blackrock Depths!  You’ll need to level up your lockpicking though, so work hard on it like any other profession. Try Redridge, Wetlands, and near the coastal nagas in Ashenvale.
The Gold Queen is written by Alyzande. Working on her 14th level 110, she has 9 years expertise in making gold, 19,000+ achievements, 1593 days played, over 39 million gold earned, and now playing World of Warcraft Legion live. The Gold Queen blog teaches you how to make gold playing Warcraft using ethical trading, auction house flipping, crafting, reselling, snatch lists, and farming gold making. Want more updates on Warcraft Legion? Support my Patreon for exclusive pre-release Legion Gold Guides.

It was the first time in a decade that I wasn't gunning for the end game, pillaging the beta test to determine the fastest way to level and get to the "good stuff," and tweaking my add-ons to skip as much content as I could to get there. I even read a quest or two, though I admit to using the option (still available, even in vanilla) to turn off the line-by-line scrolling of quest text.


My main plan will be to focus on raw gold in the beginning. Then I will spend my gold on leveling tailoring and enchanting so I can shuffle enchanting materials which is likely to be very profitable. I already have some shuffle ideas, and I will look for more. Then I’ll work on obtaining the rare enchanting and tailoring recipes to craft those for gold. 


If you like playing solo – there’s no better option than the Hunter.  Hunter is considered the most efficient solo-leveling class so you’ll ding level 60 in no time. As a Hunter, you will be able to tame various beasts across the world and use them as your pets. Pets help you tank groups of mobs and enable you to tackle some of the group quests alone. However, their PvE power falls off in the end-game, but their PvP potential is enormous. Skilled Hunters are a pain to deal with since it’s almost impossible to catch a masterful hunter.
 ":"  -  Any time a step ends in a ":" instead of a "." means that the next step is part of the current step you are on.  This generally means the next step should be done while working on the current step.  This means every "start working on" or "continue working on" will end in a ":".  But this is used with other occasions as well, so keep this in mind. 

Nov 15 I pay $12 for FFXIV. Why pay $15 for Classic? I copied this from a reply I made with slight edits, but I feel this should be brought up in a post. I'm mostly a FFXIV player nowadays. I used to play classic a lot and have only played modern WoW on and off because friends kept bugging me to come back... and then we would all quit a month or so in. I currently pay $12 for FFXIV because they have an option to pay 12 for having only 1 character per server. Paying $15 dollars for an old game that was already released is just too much. I don't like modern WoW at all. I don't like the changes they are making to 'their classic'. If I have to pay $15 dollars for a game I won't play and a modern Blizzard's take on classic WoW, then I'm not going to pay anything and go on private servers. I don't like private servers either because the people running it are often corrupt and you never know when the servers will be shut down, but I am also not willing to shell out $15 for something that isn't worth it. If I can pay $12 to play FFXIV which is a modern mmo that receives constant updates, I shouldn't have to pay $15 to play an old MMO that's already been released and is getting unnecessary changes.Destroynme111 Nov 15 

Nov 15 Thank you for the demo I just want to say thank you to Blizzard for the demo. I seriously had so much fun - so much more fun than I've had trying to play wow in YEARS. I know not everything was 100% accurate to classic, but it was just a demo so that doesn't worry me too much. I still had a million times more fun playing that demo than retail in any case. THE THINGS I LOVED: (1) I died so much. Like... SO MUCH, and that's alright! Once I finally finished whatever it was I was doing, it felt really rewarding! My group and I were actually laughing when we party wiped. No one insulted anyone or pointed blame, we just had fun. (2) Things took time. The journey mattered, it wasn't just about hitting end game asap. I felt accomplished at the end of all those time consuming things I did. (3) I had fun exploring! I spent so much time just running around, not knowing what the heck to do, but that was FUN. I had FUN getting lost and finding treasure chests. (4) Seeing the classic models again! Tbh, the races all look rubbery and stupid now... I honestly think the old racial looks are nicer. (5) Reading quests was necessary again, so the story mattered to me. No one booted me from the party for "taking too long" because I wanted to read. (6) The community! There were actually people doing RP stuff and talking in character. Everyone in the chat was just having fun. (7) All of the inconveniences - running out of mana, no mounts, running slowly on foot, little or no flightpaths... These things are fun because they're not just handed to me. I had to work hard and play the game to get things. (8) People constantly buffed other players, because that small boost could be the reason you didn't die when a roaming centaur attacked you from behind. THE THINGS I WAS CONCERNED ABOUT: (1) I've heard rumors about possible sharding... PLEASE DO NOT SHARD. PLEASE. I can understand if it's temporary just for the initial launch, and only for starting zones. I think that is a decent enough compromise for the inevitable problem of overpopulation for the first few weeks. But if we're talking about full scale realm sharding, PLEASE DO NOT! Cross-realm features and sharding are what ruined communities in wow, same with dungeon finder and other such things, and these features are very unwanted for a classic player like me. (2) The elite raptor I tamed as a hunter was not stronger than the non-elite raptor I tamed at the same level. In classic, elite animals had better stats as hunter pets once tamed, compared to the same non-elite version of that animal at the same level. (3) I think the mana and health regen rates were a bit too high? I'm not certain, but if they were I honestly want them to be genuine. It's okay if it's hard - challenges make games fun! Anyway, thank you again! I had a ton of fun, and as long as classic is true to classic with all of its pros AND cons, I feel certain that it will be a success.Sarai10 Nov 15
Where to get materials and reagents you may ask? Buy for cheap off farmers in bulk or track Auction House lots. Get in touch with most big sellers. Communication is important here, send a whisper or write them a letter. It would be good for both of you to establish business relationships. Constant suppliers and buyers is convenient for both parties to save the time and effort.
×